Unit 4 Plan
Lesson 1: Students will explore the types of synovial joints and will then observe the structure and function of a joint by dissecting and manipulating a cow elbow. Students will be able to see the range of motion of the joint as well as visualize the role of connective tissue such as cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, in cushioning and facilitating motion. Students will then use a device called a goniometer to measure the range of motion of their own joints. They will interpret schematic diagrams and design a method to measure the angle of specific movements. Students will explore the structure and function of different skeletal muscle groups by following instructions to build the muscles of the chest and then will be asked to independently build another muscle group on their model.
Lesson 2: Students will then explore the actual process of muscle contraction. They will observe contraction of frog muscle as they administer various salt and ATP solutions. Students will begin to see the requirements for contraction and will further explore this idea as they create a working model of sarcomere shortening. They will explain how the thin filaments of actin, troponin, and tropomyosin, interact with the thick filaments of myosin, as well as calcium and ATP to shorten a sarcomere and contract a muscle. Students will also use this model to explain the phenomenon of rigor mortis. The connection between the nervous system and the muscles built will be explored and modeled. Disruptions to these connections will be analyzed in a carpel tunnel case study. By completing a lab activity using data acquisition software and probes, students will investigate the phenomenon of muscle fatigue. They will then design experiments to test how the mind may be able to overcome this fatigue.
Lesson 3: Students will review the anatomy and physiology of the cardiac system. Once they have looked at the pathway of major blood vessels to and from the heart, students will explore the structural differences in arteries and veins as they investigate the formation of varicose veins. Students will then add clay arteries and veins to their Maniken and observe circulatory routes and the interaction of blood vessels with muscles. The pressure in the vessels and in the heart will be calculated as cardiac output. In a four-part case study, students will investigate peripheral arterial disease. Students will have a chance to measure and calculate the Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) and interpret results of this test.
Lesson 4: In the final lesson, students will examine the energy systems the body uses during the stages of intense exercise. This investigation will address the role of the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the muscular system, the skeletal system, the digestive system, the urinary system, and the endocrine system in controlling exercise and movement.